Copyright Kartago Inc

SYNCOOL Developments

1. SuDBE2009 (www.sudbe2009.org)

SuDBE2009 is an acronym for the "International Conference in Sustainable Development in Building and Environment", Chongqing, China 28-30 October 2009. SuDBE2009 has been directed at scientists, industries, building owners, consultants, engineers, architects, educator and policy-makers as a platform for the exchange of scientific knowledge and technical solutions in built environmental sustainability.

The aim of SuDBE2009 has been (1) to promote sustainable building and environment design, construction and management in China (2) to encourage the exchange of scientific knowledge and technical solutions in sustainable built environment and (3) to set up international network of professionals, university staff, policy-makers and developers.

2. POLAR Equilibrium (www.polarequilibrium.com)

Man-made activities: The most compelling question confronting the modern society is sustaining of the global environment in its present form. It is conversely necessary to develop means of quantifying the impact of man-made disturbances as to global resources, environmental transients & cosmic interaction. Although the intense combustion of fossil fuels & wanton destruction of the Amazon forests have increased the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to a 400,000 years peak, the earth & associated environment must be seen in the perspective of a slice in an evolutionary process that started billions of years ago when the solar system was spawned via the condensation of interstellar material that itself was the product of a cosmic furnace that produced the elements/materials that we are familiar with out of seemingly NOTHING.

CO2: Although the particulate concentration & trend of emission of CO2 & ancillary greenhouse gasses are alarming, it is inevitable to understand BOTH the thermodynamics of formation of the shell/mantle/crust of the earth in its present form as well as the forces driving both the symbiosis of CO2 equilibrium & polar ice formation. Having developed the necessary EQUILIBRIUM & CRUST FORMATION models, it became apparent that CO2 is a consequence of urbanization & not the driving function thereto. More specifically a unique balance has been determined between the equilibrium & crust formation models with an emissivity/absorbtivity level of 0.8/0.4 respectively as to space radiation & solar gain.

Rainforests: Destruction of the rain forests generally & hydrocarbon reserves specifically is a more serious issue that is within the realms of human management. The bottom-line however is that the core/mantle of the earth has become practically inert with consequential risk of chill-out of the earth in deep space under prevailing conditions. A symbiosis between human activity & natural forces/reserves is hence an essential protocol to environmental preservation.

Crust model: The inevitable consequence hence is that in order to sustain the global environment in its present form we need to determine/understand BOTH the underlying thermodynamics of formation of the shell/mantle/crust of the earth in its present form as well as the threshold of atmospheric carbon/CO2 in relation to the heat balances that sustains global harmonics. The issue at task hence is (1) to create interactive/transient models the shell/mantle/crust formation of the earth on the one hand & (2) determine the controlling manmade/natural forces that dominate environmental equilibrium on the other hand. Transient heat conduction with phase-transition conversely conforms the basis of the Crust formation analysis. A unique (numerical) solution of the Binder Schmidt graphical methodology of the 2nd order Fourier differential analysis for transient heat conduction in a homogeneous material has been employed in a desktop format to solve the transitional/non-linear crust formation problem with a boundary shift. Of significance however is that in accordance with the crust formation model (spreadsheet #2) the surface temperature of the earth dropped rapidly from a hypothetical 6,000F at formation to 450F/1B-years; 200F/2B-years; 90F/3B-years; 30F/4B-years & -6F/4.5B-years.

Equilibrium model: In order to complete the heat balance loop it is necessary to develop the perceived global impact of human activity in terms of combustion of hydrocarbon combustion & destruction of the carbon heritage of the earth. Although human activity only became constructively mechanized two hundred years ago with the advent of the steam engine, steel making & urban consumption via the mining of subsurface coal deposits, early civilizations thrived by deforesting as to construction, fuel & agriculture. Polar interaction however transpired as a most fundamental element in the global equation. Although we may conceivably be living in the realm of global harmonics with a period of 40-100,000 years, we cannot take for granted that a "spinning magna" would continue t suffice as a gatekeeper to human life via the cloak of an electromagnetic shield. Continental drift is by all account also coming to an end. Although the polar ice caps may well be a remnant of a previous ice age, its an essential component to life on earth & must be preserved at all costs.

3. SCIF/SCIF-CAP (new)

SCIF (Standardized Construction/destruction Impact Factor) constitutes a methodology as to the managing the destructive impact of construction related activities quantitatively. Whereas sustainable communities will come to fruition in the near future, the accelerated rate of construction as a means of employment and wealth distribution is out of control. Irreparable damage is being inflicted to the ecology via excessive combustion of fossil fuels, depletion of fresh water reserves and destruction of natural resources. Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 levels, the shrinkage of the polar ice caps and disappearance of established glacier fields are a serious warning as to an imbalance of global equilibrium forces. Although the major nations of the world has moved to regulate CO2 emissions and "cap-&-trade" carbon FUTURES, grass roots measures as managing/capping elemental construction activities (the principal global destructive force) has not been developed OR addressed at this instance.

Cap-and-trade is an ADMINISTRATIVE approach (Wiki) used to manage (global) pollution/ emissions by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. A central authority sets a limit or CAP on the amount of a pollutant that can be emitted. Countries/corporations/communities are issued emission permits and are required to hold an equivalent number of allowances/credits that represent the right to emit a specific amount of pollutants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emissions_trading). Cap-and-refund (USA) will conversely provide for corporate greenhouse/emissions management via permit auctions for the right to pollute. The cap/auctions will drive effectively via an increase the price of fossil-fuel-based generation via a market driven permitting levy. The auction revenue (USA) will be passed-through to the consumers via tax credits (http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content).

SCIF-CAP represents a LIFE-CYCLE approach as to sustainability whereby the (destructive) cost of construction can be recovered OR regeneratively sustained over a specified period of time (the life cycle). As an objective standard sustainability must hence provide for a SCIF surplus as an environmental remedial component on top of the perceived ZERO-in/ZERO-out standard as to sustainability. A SCIF/ SCIF-CAP protocol will function analogous (OR complementary) to the California Title-24 energy standard for the BUILT environment inasmuch as providing for regional/ seasonal quotas, however being directed at a (regenerative) CONSTRUCTION input in lieu of the OPERATIONAL standard as to the Titlle-24 requisites. Because SCIF is measured in particles CO2, it's complementary to the international CARBON standard. SCIF however renders a measurement of the carbon content of a building. The content may hence be offset over the LIFECYCLE of the building the render PERFECTLY sustainable construction.

4. SYNCOOL Tutorial (new)

A In preparation of the SuDBE2009 "Polar Equilibrium" presentation I constructed a global heat balance model as means to understanding the shrinkage of the polar ice caps and correlating the impact of atmospheric CO2. The heat balance model incorporated weighed the global combustion of fossil fuels to atmospheric temperature changes, depletion of the rain forests and melting of polar ice. A period of two hundred years (200y) has been modeled as of 1900 to 2100.

    The principal findings were as follows;
  1. That approximately 50% of the combustion of fossil fuels interact with the polar ice caps
  2. That the depletion of the ice caps by 2100 will amount to 5% for the ensuing period
  3. That the mean atmospheric temperature rise will amount to 7.3deg Fahrenheit by 2100
  4. That the role of atmospheric CO2 (barring ecological destruction) is practically ZERO
  5. That the earth is at a great risk of a new ice age due to the long-term mantle trend (Fig1).

The importance of the risk of another ice is 1) limiting ecological destruction generally and 2) PRESERVING the global hydrocarbon and rainforest reserves for future generations.

    The proposed workshop will hence focus on tools to determine;
  1. Whether construction related activities rationally relate to the depletion of the polar ice caps
  2. Whether construction activities & materials can be indexed as to the respective construction/destruction contribution
  3. Whether an abatement protocol OR alternative methodologies may be rationally developed so as to mitigate the construction/ destruction impact
  4. Whether construction activities in itself may be offset in totality &
  5. Whether a Standardized Construction/destruction Impact Factor (SCIF) may be rationally developed & enforced in real time.

    As means to the end the tutorial will entail;
  1. A tutorial on the Binder Schmidt methodology that I developed with my master's thesis 1966
  2. The rationale as to creating a global heat balance model
  3. The SYNCOOL (rainforest) synthesis
  4. A hands-on computational tutorial and
  5. A round table discussion as to the SCIF synthesis, PhD material, private sector/governmental participation, continuation work & funding options

    SCIF-CAP computational example (new);

    In accordance with the example the carbon/CO2 content of a 10,000SF structure would be 507.55 Million "particles" of CO2 (spreadsheet model). The objective would hence be able to repair/reverse the environmental destruction over the LIFE CYCLE (say 30-40years) of the type of structure.

    The means to sustainability hence requires 1) installation of SOLAR/WIND/GEOTHERMAL/PV sources of electricity/heat either in-situ OR off-premises and 2) a combination of landscaping and forestation component IN ADDITION to SOLAR/WIND/GEOTHERMAL/PV facilities. Landscaping may be partly on-premises, partly as street trees OR parks & partly via a forestation component.

    Given 507.55 M (destructive) particles of CO2 per year (the spreadsheet example), an offset of 507.55/30 =16,9M particles of per year will be required as to PURIST sustainability I event of a 30year life cycle. In event of a 40year life cycle an offset of 507.55/40 =12.7M particles CO2 per year.

    The principal issues however are 1) the meaning of 16.9M particles CO2 & 2) the means as to dissipating the offset burden in addition to the quest of ZERO-ZERO construction. The answer to question #1 is that 16.9M particles CO2 (30year life cycle) represent 16,900,000/3.636/3,400 =74,168KWh of electricity. Given 8,760h per year, a ZERO emission SCIF-CAP resource of 74,168/8,760 = 8.5KW will be required as a sustainability offset. The impact equates (1) a 10% on-site PV roof (2) onsite landscaping & (3) an offsite forestation component OR a ZERO emission (solar, wind OR geothermal) generation facility in addition to the necessary ZERO-ZERO sustainability elements in the abstract.